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2020-09-24 12:33:44   •   ID: 2204

Lithic Diversity of Central Europe during the LGM

Figure 1
This is a small collection from a surface scatter, found in the Kamp Valley in Lower Austria, during the 1930ies.

It assembles a carinated core, a small blade-let with marginal retouche, a partially retouched flake and a small backed bladelet.

The small ensemble has affinities both to the Aurignacian and Gravettian, but is very different from the nearby stations like Krems, Willendorf and Aggsbach. A post-Gravettian age is most probable.

The diversity of techno-typological concepts during and early after the LGM in Central Europe is astonishing and much more diverse, that I have formerly described in this Blog- see 1675 . It may be prudent to avoid terms like: Epi-Gravettian or Epi-Aurignacian, because characteristics of both entities are often mixed.

The Last Glacial Maximum around 24 k.a. CalBP played a more important role in cultural adaptation than it was expected previously. During this time period, the western part of central Europe appeared as an area of remarkable demographic decrease.

Anyhow a regular network of sites is recorded in the eastern part of central Europe, namely in the Carpathian Basin, Moravia, Slovakia and parts of Lower Austria, which seemed to have functioned as habitable climatic European refugia.

Petr Škrdla et al. recently tried do give an account about the current knowledge of different Paleolithic Industries around the LGM in Central Europe. According to him our small ensemble is part of the “Plevovce” tradition.

Phase “SS-IV” (22.5–21.0 ky cal BP)
Stránská skála IV (CZ), Grubgraben (A), Kašov I (upper layer) (SK), Ságvár (HU), Mittlere Klause, Kastelhöhle-Nord and Wiesbaden-Igstadt (D), Kraków-Spadzista C2 and Deszczowa cave (PL)(?) The lithic industries at these sites include steeply retouched artefacts and microlithic tools. While the lithic assemblages from Stránská skála IV and Kašov are distinctly rich in blades, those from Grubgraben and Ságvár feature flake technologies

Phase “Plevovce” (20–19.5 ky cal BP)
Mohelno-Plevovce (KSA), Esztergom-Gyurgyalag, Szeged-Öthalom (HU), Rosenburg, Grubgraben (upper layer) (?) (A). The lithic assemblages are characterized by variable microlithic components – microliths on carenoidal blanks removed from carinated endscrapers are present in Mohelno.

Phase “Brno-Vídeňská” (19–17 ky cal BP)
Brno-Vídeňská, Mohelno-Plevovce (AC1&2), and Stadice (CZ), more sites in Poland and Hungary.
The lithic assemblages are characterised by the manufacture of long, narrow, symmetrical blades, often manufactured from bipolar cores. A typologically dominant component are burins with blade endscrapers and microliths represented by backed blades.
(Skrdla et al. 2020).

The Kamp Valley is an important axis between the Middle Danube region towards Moravia and certainly understudied despite sites already known at Kammegg, Langenlois or Rosenburg.