2018-01-20 16:53:59 • ID: 1709
The Acheulo-Jabrudian (Yabrudian) in the Levant
These are two very typical scrapers from the Yabroudian (Yabrudian) near Tel-Aviv in Israel at the southern margins of this technocomplex.
"The late Lower Paleolithic and the early Middle Paleolithic witnessed significant techno- logical, behavioral, and anatomical changes among hominin populations in Africa, Europe and the Near East with emerging new and more complex subsistence and technological behaviors, including the appearance of the Levallois and laminar technologies as early as 300 ky ago.
In the Near East, the period between 400,000 and 150,000 years ago witnessed a succession of three technocomplexes: the Late Acheulian, the Acheulo-Yabrudian and the Early Middle Paleolithic (EMP)" (Zaidner 2018).
The Yabrudian is a post-Acheulian and pre-Mousterian entity roughly dated between 400-200 k.a BP and encompasses several technocomplexes:
- Thick scrapers with one or more working edge shaped by scalar retouch, are an important hallmark of the of Yabrudian industry, first defined by A. Rust in the early1950ies. These scrapers are made on thick flakes and often display a convergent and déjeté aspect.
- The Acheulo-Yabrudian is dominated by hand-axes and Yabrudian scrapers.
- The Amudian and Pre-Aurignacian are early blade industries connected with the Acheulo-Yabrudian.
The Acheulo-Yabrudian is limited in its geographical distribution to habitats in the southern Levant (Jamal and Tabun E at the Mt. Carmel; Zuttiyeh cave and Quesem cave in Israel; Adlun (Bezez and Zumoffen rock shelters) on the Lebanese coast, Yabroud, El Kowm oasis [Aïn Hummal, Nadaouiyeh Aïn Askar, Umm el Tlel], Douara cave and the Ma’aloula region in Syria and the Azraq oasis in Jordania, to name just the most important sites.
At Misliya and Qesem Cave which are actually excavated, our ancestors were engaged in large-game hunting.
At Qesem Cave the habitual use of fire was demonstrated. At both sites advanced raw-material-procurement strategies were performed. All this traits reflect new human capabilities in this part of the world.
Three permanent mandibular teeth were recently found in in the lower part of the stratigraphic sequence and are claimed to be the teeth of Homo sapiens. If so-these findings would push the date of the Appearance of Sapiens further back in time, but this issue is controversial.
Interestingly the only hominine fossil ever found with Yabroudian artefacts is a fragment of the face of a hominid skull at the Zuttiyeh cave , whose taxonomical position is still under discussion ("Archaic" H. Sapiens vs. H. heidelbergensis, vs. Early H. Neanderthaliensis). There is an ongoing debate, if the components of the technocomplex have chronological or activity specific significance.
Recent discovery of a Yabrudian contemporaneous with an Amudian ensemble at Qesem Cave support the latter view. Interestingly elements of Levallois technology, if not true Levallois production, are well represented already in the industries of the Acheulo-Yabrudian complex at Tabun, indicating that this technique in the littoral Levant could have evolved from a "Proto-Levallois" by using Bifaces as cores.
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