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2016-07-12 04:27:09   •   ID: 1473

Moravany / Slovakia: Shouldered point (Willendorf-Kostenki complex)

Figure 1
This is a Shouldered point (“Willendorf-Kostenki culture”; 25000-21000 BP) from the Moravany nad Váhom area. In Middle Europe several sites of this technocomplex are known from Slovakia, Moravia and Poland.

Although shouldered points are not unknown from the preceding Pavlovian ( Předmostí, Dolní Věstonice-Pavlov cluster) and from the western Gravettian / Perigordian ( La Gravette, Laussel) , shouldered points are the signature of later developments in the „Eastern Gravettian” complex.

The oldest documented finds in the Moravany area are dated to the 19th century when this part of Slovakia belonged to the Austrian monarchy. First excavations were performed by L.F.Zotz (1941-1943), who was the holder of the chair of prehistory at the Karls University in Prague, during the Nazi occupation of the "Resttschechei".

Figure 2
He excavated  in Moravany- Lopata I, Moravany- Zakovská and Moravany- Dlhá. After the war Zotz was followed by K.Absolon (1946), who made excellent drawings of many artefacts including leaf points from the Moravany- Dlhá area (Szeletien) and shouldered points from Podkovica.

An extensive overview about the Gravettien in Europe can be found here: F.Prosek (1949) and J.Bárta (1960, 1964, 1990) made some excavations but many stratigraphies were disturbed during the following years by local collectors and deep ploughing.

Figure 3
Since 1991 the excavations near Moravany nad Váhom area were intensified in the position of Zakovská, Lopata and Banka - Horné farské. Moravany remains have their origin in the best-known positions of Lopata I and II, Noviny, Podkovica, Banka-Kopanica, Banka-Horné farské role. The stone industry is mostly made of flints imported from the Krakow region and of inland radiolarites. Dominating type of artefacts is a shouldered point of the Kostienki type.

Paleontological material is documented mainly by reindeer, mammoth, sporadically polar fox, wolf, lion and wolverine. Paleobotanical finds (pine, yew) witness an existence of favourable climate in the river Váh basin before the late glacial maximum  At the nearby Trencin-region, a late eastern Gravettian with excellent leaf-points was excavated at Trencianské Bohuslavice.

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