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2014-09-21 13:11:15   •   ID: 1190

Quina Mousterian from the Gargano

Figure 1
This is a Quina scraper made of high quality flint, found near Mattinata in the Gargano together with a pure Quina Mousterian ensemble. The scraper combines a scraping edge, covered with a „Retouche écailleuses scalariforme“ and an a oposite edge, allowing a handhold use or the hafting of the artifact.

Intentional backing of stone tools in Europe was known since the Acheulian . Neanderthals successfully colonized the Italian peninsula, coping with different ecotones / niches and climates during a considerable time since the Middle Pleistocene.

Figure 2
As already known from Northern France, Middle Paleolithic industries and regional differentiation of the lithic industries in Italy appeared long before the last interglacial. For a long time the Levallois technique seemed to prevalent only in the North-East while in Southern Italy the Quina system was suggested to be omnipresent. It is now clear, that this view was biased ( Daniele Aureli and Annamaria Ronchitelli 2018)

The Middle Paleolithic in the North is starting from OIS 9-8. Different techniques have been described: Levallois, volumetric laminar production (MIS 9,6,4), Discoid techniques are post MIS-5 phenomena, Quina was present during MIS 6 and 4. Handaxes persist until MIS 6 and show a short comeback during MIS4.

In central Italy Levallois is contested as early as MIS 11, and during MIS7,6-3. Quina is present during MIS5/4, while Blades and Discoid methods are late (MIS3) phenomena. Handaxes are present until MIS6.

In Southern Italy Quina has an early and relatively prominent presence during MIS6 and 5. Levallois, Discoid and Laminar techniques are late phenomena oft the last glacial, with Discoid and Laminar following the Levallois technique.

In so far the Levallois system in Southern Italy is later than in the North. Causes and impact of this observation remain unclear.

The Quina collection from the Mt Sacro found near Mattinata in the Gargano may be as old as MIS 6 or 5 and shows all the characteristics, that were described for the type site by Henri Martin.

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